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Manuel L. Quezon - Second President

President of the Philippine Commonwealth


Manuel Luis Quezon Antonio y Molina was the Second President of the Philippines, and only President of the Philippine Commonwealth under the 1935 Constitution.

He directly served as an Aide-de-Camp to Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo in 1899.

Under the american colonial government, he served in various capacities

  • Fiscal of Mindoro ( appointed September 19, 1903 )
  • Fiscal of Tayabas ( March 12, 1904 to November 1, 1904 )
  • Municipal councilor of Tayabas, Tayabas ( 1906 )
  • Governor of Tayabas ( March 5, 1906 to July 25, 1907)
  • Member and Majority Floor Leader of the First Philippine Assembly, (1907 - 1909)
  • Resident Commissioner to the U.S. Congress (elected by the Philippine Legislature) 1909-1916
  • Senator for the Fifth Senatorial District (Batangas, Mindoro, Tayabas, Cavite, and Marinduque) 1916-1935
    • 4th Legislature 1916-1919;
    • 5th Legislature 1919-1922;
    • 6th Legislature 1922-1925;
    • 7th Legislature 1925-1928;
    • 8th Legislature 1928-1931;
    • 9th Legislature 1931-1934;
    • 10th Legislature 1934-1935
  • 1st President of the Philippine Senate 1916-1935

Manuel L. Quezon has the distinction of being the first Senate President elected to the presidency, the first president elected through a national election, and was also the first incumbent to secure re-election (for a partial second term, later extended, due to amendments to the 1935 Constitution). He is known as the "Father of the National Language".

In 1935 Quezon won the Philippine's first national presidential election under the banner of the Nacionalista Party. He obtained nearly 684572634f the vote against his two main rivals, Emilio Aguinaldo and Bishop Gregorio Aglipay. Sergio Osmeña was elected Vice-President. Quezon was inaugurated in November, 1935. He is recognized as the second President of the Philippines. He was inaugurated for his first term as President on November 15, 1935 at the Legislative Building in Manila. His first term ended Dec 30, 1941.

Quezon had originally been barred by the Philippine constitution from seeking re-election. However, in 1940, constitutional amendments were ratified allowing him to seek re-election for a fresh term ending in 1943. In the 1941 presidential elections, Quezon was re-elected over former Senator Juan Sumulong with nearly 820f the vote. Sergio Osmeña was similarly re-elected Vice-President. He was inaugurated as President in Corregidor, on December 30, 1941, after the outbreak of World War II.

The outbreak of World War II and the Japanese invasion resulted in periodic and drastic changes to the government structure. Executive Order 390, December 22, 1941 abolished the Department of the Interior and established a new line of succession. Executive Order 396, December 24, 1941 further reorganized and grouped the cabinet, with the functions of Secretary of Justice assigned to the Chief Justice of the Philippines.

Quezon suffered from tuberculosis and spent his last years in Saranac Lake, New York, where he died on August 1, 1944. He was initially buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His body was later carried by the USS Princeton (CV-37) and re-interred in Manila, at the Manila North Cemetery and then moved to Quezon City within the monument at the Quezon Memorial Circle.


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